TalkEnglish gave the following rules that will help us learn how to use by and with.
- Used as ‘with + a noun phrase’: with a map
- Used to indicate being together or being involved: I ordered a sandwich with a drink.
- Used to indicate “having”: I met a guy with green eyes.
- Used to indicate “using”: I wrote a letter with the pen you gave me.
- Used to indicate feeling: I am emailing you with my sincere apology.
- Used as ‘by + a gerund’: by using a map
- Used to indicate proximity: He was standing by me.
- Used to indicate the person that does something in a passive voice sentence: The microwave was fixed by the mechanic.
- Used to indicate an action with a particular purpose: You can pass the exam by preparing for it.
- Used to indicate a means or method: Please send this package to Russia by airmail.
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